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Varicose Veins Symptoms, Causes and Effects

What are varicose veins?

Veins are blood vessels that carry blood from your body’s tissues to your heart. The heart pumps blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen. The oxygen-rich blood flows through tiny blood vessels called capillaries, where it gives up its oxygen to the body’s tissues. Your blood then returns to your heart through your vein.

What causes varicose veins?

When the blood vessel walls weaken, veins swell causing blood to back up and pool inside the vein. Normally, blood flows through the vein in one direction toward the heart. Varicose veins become a new route for blood to flow.

What are the symptoms of varicose veins?

Symptoms usually appear before the age of 40 and might include:

  • Swollen, twisted clusters of purple or blue veins
  • Swollen legs, ankles, and feet
  • Muscle cramps, throbbing, soreness, or aching in the legs
  • Legs that feel “heavy”
  • Soreness behind the knee
  • Itching around the vein
  • Leg muscles that tire easily
  • Brown discoloration of the skin
  • Skin ulcers


A number of factors contribute to the development of varicose veins. These include:

  • A genetic predisposition
  • Hormonal factors
  • Excess weight
  • Pregnancy
  • Circulatory problems, such as blood clots (thrombosis)
  • Injury or inflammation of the veins
  • Chronic constipation may contribute to the development of rectal varicose veins (hemorrhoids).


Varicose veins are usually easily visible so it is possible to make a diagnosis simply from their appearance. A doctor will perform a physical examination to assess the extent of the varicose veins. They may also order an ultrasound test called a Doppler which enables the blood flow and structure of the veins to be seen on a monitor. It can also show if any blood clots are present. A duplex ultrasound may also be performed. This is a more advanced scan and displays the image in color.

Another test, known as air plethysmography (APG), may be performed to better identify the function of the affected veins. For this test, pressure cuffs are placed on the leg and are connected to a computer. The cuffs are pumped up and released at pre-determined rates and intervals, while the computer measures how the blood flows through the veins and arteries in the leg.


Treatment may not be medically necessary unless symptoms are problematic. However, some people may want treatment for cosmetic reasons, because they are unhappy with the appearance of varicose veins.

If varicose veins are small and not too uncomfortable, elastic compression stockings may be recommended. These are worn during daily activities and help to compress the veins, keeping them from stretching and limiting any discomfort or pain.

For more problematic cases a range of procedures – surgical and non-surgical – are available to seal or remove varicose veins. A combination of treatment techniques may sometimes be used. Treatment options for varicose veins have changed significantly in the past 25 years and continue to evolve. Dr. Chandrakant S Kamble is devoted to advancing the modern treatment of venous disease, as well as offering his patients the most comprehensive, modern, and effective cosmetic procedures available. Schedule your appointment today by calling +91-77740-97183.

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